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READING Materials

For details please contact:
Peter J. Van Der Schaar MD, PhD, FCMT
Fax **(31) 495 592 418
pjvanderschaar@gmail.com



MANDATORY READING MATERIAL FOR THE IBCMT EXAMS



We have great news!
April 2015

The new, twelfth edition, Textbook of Clinical Metal Toxicology is out and it is better than ever before.

Dr. VanDerSchaar has just finished the twelfth edition of the Textbook “Clinical Metal Toxicology” (600 pages A+) It is available right now. The cost is 100 Euro, postage excluded.

Many new items were added and chapters were revised and updated with the most recent data.

It is required reading for the C/CMT and FCMT examinations.

For those who are interested, please contact
Dr. VanDerSchaar at:
pjvanderschaar@gmail.com




Recommended Reading

The following books and articles are recommended or may be used for presentations, references etc. The IBCMT Secretariat will inform you about availability of this literature.

Literature References

CalciumEDTA

Araki S, Aono H, Murata K. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocytes and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators. Br J Ind Med. 1986 Sep;43(9):636-41

Fine SD: Calcium disodium edetate and disodium edetate. Drugs for human use; Drug efficacy study implementation. Fed Reg (35)8: Jan. 13, 1970.

Hardy HL: Clinical experience with the use of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the therapy of lead poisoning. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):252, 1961

Haumont S and Vincent J: Action of calcium versenate on lead fixed in vivo in compact bone. Exp Cell Res 18:404, 1959

Heller J and Vostal J: Renal excretion of calcium-disodium-ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid - a new tubular secretory mechanism? Experientia 20:99, 1964.

Kneller LA, Uhl HSM and Brem J: Successful calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate treatment of lead poisoning in an infant. N Engl J Med 252:338, 1955.

Vogt W and Cottier II: Necrotizing nephrosis after treatment of a case of subacute-chronic lead poisoning with CaEDTA in high doses. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 87(22): 665 1957.

Williams JD, Matthews GA and Judd AW: Oral calcium disodium versenate in treatment of lead poisoning. Brit J Indust Med 19:211, 1962.

Agata Calderone, Teresa Jover, * Toshihiro Mashiko, * Kyung-min Noh, Hidenobu Tanaka, Michael V. L. Bennett, and R. Suzanne Zukin. Late Calcium EDTA Rescues Hippocampal CA1 Neurons from Global Ischemia-Induced Death. Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 The Journal of Neuroscience, November 3, 2004, 24(44):9903-9913; JNEUROSCI.1713-04.2004



Chelation, General

Adams WJ and McGee CT: Chelation therapy: a survey of treatment outcomes and selected socio-medical factors. J Adv Med 5(3):189, 1992.

Cantilewa LR, Klassen CD: The effect of chelating agents on the excretion of endogenous metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 63:344, 1982

Catsch A and Harmuth-Hoene AE: Pharmacology and therapeutic applications of agents used in heavy metal poisoning. Pharmac Ther. A, (1):1, 1976.

Chelation therapy (Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment). JAMA 250:672, 1983.

Chelation therapy: a second look. The Harvard Medical School Health Letter, IX:1, 1984.

Chelation Therapy Clinic: Chelation therapy - the treatment of choice for relief from and prevention of, cardiovascular and age-related diseases. Aukland, New Zealand, The Chelation Therapy Clinic, 1987.

Chelation therapy. Resolution: 66 (I-84). AMA House of Delegates. 1984.

Chelation therapy. Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. Report F (I-84). AMA House of Delegates. 1984.

Chelation therapy - An informal summary. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Bethesda, Maryland. June 1992.

Curran CL: Metal chelating agents and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Proc Soc Exper Biol & Med 88:101, 1955.

Davis PS and Deller DJ: Effect of orally administered chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and fructose on radioiron absorption in man. Aust Ann Med 16:70, 1967.

Foreman H: Pharmacology of some useful chelating agents. In Seven MJ and Johnson LA (eds): Metal-Binding in Medicine. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1960.

Foreman H: The use of chelating agents for excelerating excretion of radioelements. J Am Pharm Assoc (42): 629, 1953.

Foreman H: Summary remarks by the chairman. [Proceedings of a conference on biological apects of metal-binding.] Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):257, 1961.

Foreman H: Use of chelating agents in treatment of metal poisoning with special emphsis on lead. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):191, 1961.

Forssman O and Nordqvist P: The action in vitro and in vivo of sodium versenate on the phagocytic activity of neutrophile leukocytes. Acta Haemat 31:289, 1964.

Gordon GF: Oral chelation with EDTA. J Holistic Medicine 8(1):79, 1986.

Gotto AM Jr: Chelation therapy in 1984. Texas Medicine, 80:36, 1984

Handbook of Metal-Ligand Interactions in Biological Fluids. Guy Berthon ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc. N.Y., N.Y. Vol 2. p. 1301,1995

Handbook of Metal-Ligand Interactions in Biological Fluids. Guy Berthon ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc. N.Y., N.Y. Vol 2. p. 1486, 1995

Hart H and Lazlo D: Modification of the distribution and excretion by radioisotopes by chelating agents. Science 118:24, July 1953.

Kebe SR: ACTH and a chelating agent for schizophrenia. West Med 4:46, 1963

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Goodman and Gilman's :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th Ed.: 1615,1980

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Goodman and Gilman's :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th Ed.: 1627,1980

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists. Goodman and Gilman's :The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 6th Ed.: 1634,1980

Klassen CD: Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists, in Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F (eds): The pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 7th ed. New York, Macmillan, pp. 1605,1985

Oser BL: Observations on the chronic ingestion of a chelating agent by rats and dogs. Fed Proc 20(Suppl 10):158, 1961

Painter JT and Morrow EJ: Porphyria. Its manifestations and treatment with chelating agents. Texas State J Med 55:811, 1959

Pullman TN, Lavender AR and Forland M: Synthetic chelating agents in clinical medicine. Ann Rev Med 14:175, 1963

Rutman JZ, Melttzer LE, Kitchell JR, et al: Effect of metal ions on in vitro gluconeogensis in rat kidney cortex slices. Am J Physiol 208:841, 1965

Schroeder HA, Menhard EM and Perry HM Jr: Antihypertensive effects of metal binding agents. J Lab & Clin Med 23:416, 1955

Schubert J: Radioelement removal by chelating agents: application of mass action laws and other factors. Fed Proc 20(3) Part II Supp#10:206, 1961

Seven MJ: Observations on the dosage of intravenous chelating agents. Antibiotic Med 5:251, 1958

Seven MJ and Johnson LA: Metal Binding in Medicine, JB Lippincott, Phila, 1960.

Seven MJ: Observations on the toxicity of intravenous chelating agents. In: MJ Seven and LA Johnson (Eds). Metal Binding in Medicine JP Lippincot, Phila, 1960

Administration. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 82: 266, 1953

Silverglade A: Chelation clinics. Chest 87:274 1985.

Sincock A: Life extension in the rotifer by application of chelating agents. J Gerontol 30:289, 1975

Tandon SK: Combination therapy: a better approach to chelation in metal intoxication. Plzen.lek.Sborn. Suppl.56:187, 1988

Walshe JM: Triethylene tetramine. Lancet, ii 154, 1970



Desferrioxamine

Keberle M: The biochemistry of desferrioxamine and its relation to iron metabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci 119:758, 1964

Lipschitz D, Dugard J, Simon M, et al: The site of action of desferrioxamine. Br J Haematol 20:396, 1971

Westlin W: Deferoxamine in the treatment of acute iron poisoning - Clinical experiences with 172 children. Clin Pediatr 5:531, 1966



DMPS

Hruby K, and Donner A: 2,3-dimercapto-1-proponesulfonate in heavy metal poisoning. Medical Toxicol 2:317,1987

McGowan EL, Tillotson JA, Knudsen JJ, and Dumalo CR: Biological behavior and metabolic fate of the BAL analogues DMSA and DMPS. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 27:169, 1984



DMSA

Graziano JH, Leong JK, and Friedheim E: 2,3 Dimercaptosuccinic acid: a new agent for the treatment of lead poisoning. J Pharm Exp Ther 206:697, 1978

Graziano JH: Role of 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. Med Toxicol 1:155, 1986

Kapoor SC, Wielopolski L, Graziano JH, and LoIocano NJ: Influence of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on gastrointestinal lead absorption and whole-body lead retention. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 97:525, 1989

Maiorino RM, Bruce DC, and Aposhian HV: Determination and metabolism of dithiol chelating agents: VI. Isolation and identification of the mixed disulfides of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid with L-cysteine in human urine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 97:338, 1989

.McGowan EL, Tillotson JA, Knudsen JJ, and Dumalo CR: Biological behavior and metabolic fate of the BAL analogues DMSA and DMPS. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 27:169, 1984



D-Penicillamine

Kean WF, Dwosh IL, Anastassiades TP, et al: The toxicity pattern of d-penicillamine therapy. Arthritis Rheum 23:158, 1984

Selander S: Treatment of lead poisoning. A comparison between the effects of sodium calcium edetate and penicillamine administered orally and intravenously. Brit J Indust Med 24:272, 1967

Stein HB, Patterson AC, Offer RC, et al: Adverse effects of d-penicilamine in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Int Med 92:24, 1980

Walshe JM: Penicillamine, new oral therapy for Wilson's disease. Am J Med. 21:487, 1956



EDTA

Calcium disodium edetate and disodium edetate. Drugs for human use; drug efficacy study implementation. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Food and Drug Administration. Federal Registrar 35 F.R. 437, 1970.

Cheraskin E, Wussow DG, McDonagh EW and Rudolph CJ: Effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation with and without physical activity on the heart rate. J InternAcadof Prev Medi 8(6):5, 1984.

Cohen SH, Gong JK and Fishler MC: Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment of internal radioactive contamination. Nucleonics (11)1: 56, 1953.

Darwish NM and Kratzer FH: Metabolism of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) by chickens. J Nutr 86:187, 1965.

Donsbach KW: Chelation Therapy; Has the Plug Been Pulled on Our Biggest Killer? Huntington Beach, CA, International Institute of Health, 1981.

Diagnostic and therapeutic technology assessment: Chelation therapy. JAMA 250:672,1983.

Editorial EDTA chelation: a rebuttal. J Adv Med 5:3, 1992

Grier MT and Meyers DG: So much writing, so little science: A review of 37 years of literature on edetate sodium chelation therapy. Ann Pharmacother 27:1504, 1993

Halstead BW, Rozema T: The Scientific Basis of EDTA ChelationTherapy, Second Edition. Tryon, N.C. TRC Publishing, Box 1241, Tryon NC 28782

Harper JW and Gordon GF: Reprints of Medical Literature on Chelation Therapy. Los Angeles, American Academy of Medical Preventics, 1975.

Hausmann E: Changes in plasma phosphate concentration on infusion of calcium gluconate or Na2EDTA. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 134:182, 1970.

Hay DR: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 101(841):122, 1988.

Hay DR: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 101(845):246, 1988.

HoIm LW: The use of calcium disodium salt of Versene in heavy-metal poisoning of livestock. Proc Am Vet Med Assoc (48): 33, 1954.

Jonas WB: Meta-analysis of EDTA chelation: Math that doesn’t matter. J Adv Med 7:109, 1994.

Jonas WB: Effectiveness of EDTA chelation therapy. Circulation 5:1352, 1995.

Koen A, McCann DS and Boyle AJ: Some in vivo effects of chelation. II. Animal experimentation. J Chron Dis 16:329, 1963.

Jones RJ: Chelation therapy (Letter). JAMA 250:672, 1983.

Konradi MG: Use of the disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate for diagnosing latent forms of hypoparathyroidism. Prob Endokrinol (Russ.) (23)3: 46, 1977.

Kozlov VA and Novikova VM: Calcium ion-dependent immunosuppressive effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Zh Mikrobiol, Epidemiol Immunobiol (Russ.) (1): 69, 1978.

Leitner SA: Last chance to live. Wade Allen Publishing, Chesterfield, MO, 1980.

Luchi RJ, Helwig J Jr and Conn HL Jr: Quinidine txoicity and its treatment. An experimental study. Am Heart J 65:340, 1963.

Lelievre P and Betz EH: Effect of versene on oxygen consumption of tissues in vitro. C R Soc Biol 155:199, 1961.

Liberman UA, Barzel U, De Vries A and Ellis H: Myositis ossificans traumatica with unusual course. Effect of EDTA on calcium, phosphorus and mangenese excretion. Am J Med Sci 254:35, 1967.

Lochte HL Jr, Ferrebee JW and Thomas ED: The effect of heparin and EDTA on DNA synthesis by marrow in vitro. J Lab Clin Med 55435, 1960

Lonsdale D: EDTA chelation therapy. Am J Surg 166:316, 1993.

Lyons RD: Chelation: miracle cure or false hope? Med J Aust 142: 519, 1985.

Magee HR: Chelation therapy for atherosclerosis. Med J Aust 143:127, 1985.

Magee HR: Chelation treatment of atherosclerosis. Med J Aust 142:514, 1985.

Maxwell GM, Elliot RB and Robertson E: The effect of Na3EDTA-induced hypocalcemia upon the general and coronary hemodynamics of the intact animal. Am Heart J 66:82, 1963.

Meltzer L, Kitchell J and Palmon F: The long term use, side effects, and toxicity of disodium ethylelenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am J Med Sci (242): 11, 1961

McCoy JE, Carre IJ and Freeman M: A controlled trial of edathamil calcium disodium in acrodynia. Pediatrics 25:304, 1960.

McDonagh E: Circulation changes in extremities with chelation therapy. Paper presented at American Academy of Medical Preventics Fall Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, November, 1982

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The homeostatic effect of EDTA with supportive multivitamin trace mineral supplementation upon high-density lipoproteins (HDL). J Osteopath Phys Surg Calif 8: #2, Spring 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The effect of intra-venous disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plus supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon fasting serum calcium. Med Hypotheses 11:431, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) distribution in EDTA chelation eligible patients. J Orthomolecular Psych 12:72,1983.

McDonagh EW and Rudolph CJ: A collection of published papers showing the efficacy of EDTA chelation Therapy. Gladstone, MO, McDonagh Medical Center, 1991.

McDonagh EW: Chelation can cure: How to reverse heart disease, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure or surgery. Kansas City, Platinum Pen Publications, 1983.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The effect of intravenous disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) upon blood cholesterol levels in a private practice environment. J Intern Acad of Prev Med 7:5, 1982.

McDonagh E.W, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy with multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon reported fatigue. J of Orthomol Psy 13(4):1, 1984.

McDonagh EW ,Rudolph CJ, Cheraskin E and Wussow DG: The effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation with and without physical activity upon systolic blood pressure. J Orthomol Psy 13;1, 1984.

McDonagh EW,, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The psychotherapeutic potential of EDTA chelation. The J OrthomolPsy 14(3):214, 1985.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The clinical changes in patients treated with EDTA chelation plus multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation. The J Orthomol Psy 14(1):61, 1985.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: An oculocerebrovasculometric analysis of the improvement in vascular stenosis following edta chelation therapy. J Holistic Med 4(1): 21, 1982

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ and Cheraskin E: The Influence of EDTA salts plus multivitamin-trace mineral therapy upon total serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Med Hypotheses 9:643, 1982

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ, and Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation upon vascular dynamics: ankle/brachial doppler systolic blood pressure ratio. J Holistic Med 7(1):16, 1985.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CJ ,Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus sup­portive multivitamin-trace mineral supplementation upon renal function: A study in serum creatinine. J Holistic Medicine 4:146, 1982.

McDonagh EW, Rudolph CS, Cheraskin E: The effect of EDTA chelation therapy plus sup­portive multivtamin-trace mineral supplementation upon renal function: A study in blood urea nitrogen (BUN). J Holistic Medicine 5(2):163, 1983

Meltzer LE: Chelation Therapy. In Seven MJ and Johnson LA (eds): Metal Binding in Medicine. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1960

Meltzer LE, Palmon FJ, and Kitchell JR: Hypoglycemia induced by disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid. Lancet 2:637, 1961.

Meltzer LE, Kitchell JR, and Palmon FJ: The long term use, side effects, and toxicity of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am J Med Sci 242:11, 1961

Monaco GP and Green S: Recognizing deception in the promotion of untested and unproven medical treatments. NY State J of Med 2:88, 1993

Myers HL: Topical chelation therapy for varicose pigmentation. Angiology 17:66, 1966.

Nakano J, Cole B and Ishii T: Effects of disodium EDTA on the cardiovascular responses to prostaglandin E1. Experientia 24:808, 1968.

Nedergaard OA and Vagne A: Effect of EDTA and other chelating agents on norepinephrine uptake by rabbit aorta in vitro. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 11:87, 1968

Neldner KH, Winklemann RK and Perry HO: Scleroderma. An evaluation of treatment with disodium edetate. Arch Derm 86:305, 1962

Offer GW: The antagonistic action of magnesium ions and ethylenediaminetetraacetate on myosin A ATPase (potassium activated). Biochim Biophys Acta 89:566, 1964

Ontka JA: Physical and chemical changes in isolated chylomicrons: prevention by EDTA. J Lipid Res 11:367, 1970

Oser BL, Oser M and Spencer HC: Safety evaluation studies of calcium EDTA. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 5:142, 1963

Peng CF, Kane JJ, Murphy ML, Straub KD: Abnormal mitochondrial oxidative phosphoryla­tion of ischemic myocardium reversed by calcium chelating agents. J Mol Cell Cardiol 9:897, 1977

Perry HM Jr and Schroeder HA: Depression of cholesterol levels in human plasma following ethylenediamine tetraacetate and hydralazine. J Chron Dis 2:520, 1955.

Perry HM and Perry EF: Normal concentrations of some trace minerals in human urine, changes produced by EDTA. J Clin Invest (38):1452, 1959.

Perry H and Schroeder HA: Lesions resembling Vitamin B complex deficiency and urinary loss of zinc produced by EDTA. Am J Med (22): 168, 1957.

Perry HM Jr, and Camel GH: Some effects of CaNa2 EDTA on plasma cholesterol and urinary zinc in man. In: MJ Seven and LA Johnson (Eds). Metal Binding In Medicine. JP Lippincott, Phila., 1960

Platts-Mills A: EDTA chelation therapy. NZ Med J, 101(849):465, 1988

Price JM: Some effects of chelating agents on tryptophan metabolism in man. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):223, 1961

Renoux M and Mikol C: Chelation. Presse Med 72:3117, 1964

Riordan HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et al: EDTA chelation/hypertension study: clinical patterns as judged by the Cornell Medical Index Questionnaire. J Orthomolel Med 4:91, 1989

Robinson DM: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 74:750, 1982

Riordon HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et al: Electrocardiographic changes associated with EDTA chelation therapy. J Adv Med 1:191, 1988

Rosenman RH and Smith MK: The effect of certain chelating substances (EDTA) upon cholesterol .

Rozema TC. Metabolic responses during magnesium disodium EDTA administration. Plzen. lek. Sborn 1990 ; Suppl. 62 : 177-178metabolism in the rat. J Clin Invest 35:11, 1956

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW and Barber RK: Effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation on chronic lung disorders: a study of FVC and FEV1. J Adv Med 2(4): 553,1989

Rudolph CJ, Samuels RT and McDonagh EW: Visual field evidence of macular degeneration reversal using a combination of EDTA and multiple vitamin and trace mineral therapy. J Adv Med 7:203, 1994

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW, Wussow, DG: The effect of intravenous ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) upon bone density levels. J Advancement Med 1(2):79, 1988.

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW: The chelation carrier solution: An analysis of osmolarity and sodium content. Journal of the International Academy of Preventive Medicine 8(1):26, 1983

Saunders JF, Princiotto JV and Rubin M: Effect of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate on hypercholesterolemic rabbits.Soc Exp Biol & Med 92:29, 1956

Schachter MB Letter to the editor: chelation therapy. Circulation 91(4):2291, 1995

Schubert J: Chelation in medicine. Sci Am 214:40, 1966

Soffer A: Chelation Therapy. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1964

Soffer A, Toribara T and Sayman A: Myocardial responses to chelation. Brit Heart J 23:690, 1961.

Stecker RH and Bennett M: Chelation in clinical otosclerosis. Arch Otolaryng 70:627, 1959

Thompson LJ: Chelation therapy. N Z Med J 103:326, 1990

Welcher FJ: The Analytical Uses of Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid 5. Van Nostrand, Princeton.

Wong G: The chemistry of EDTA (a brief treatment). H Harper and G Gordon (Eds.). Reprints of Medical Literature on Chelation Therapy. Amer Acad Med Prev Los Angeles, 1974.



EDTA, arrhythmia

Jick S and Karsh R: The effect of calcium chelation on cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances. Am J Cardiol 4:287, 1959.

Nayler WG: Ventricular arrhythmias following the administration of Na2EDTA. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 137:5, 1962

Soffer A, Toribara T, Moore-Jones D and Weber D: Clinical applications and untoward reactions of chelation in cardiac arrhythmias Arch Inten Med 106:824, 1960.

Surawicz B: Use of chelating agent, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, in digitalis intoxication and cardiac arrhythrnias. Prog in CardiovascularDis p. 432, 1960.

Surawicz B, MacDonald MG, Kaljot V,et al: Treatment of cardiac arrythmias with salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am Heart J(58): 493, 1959.

Surawicz B, MacDonald MG, Kaljot V and Bettinger JC: The effect of intravenous administration of disodium and dipotassium EDTA on cardiac arrhythmias. In:Seven MJ and Johnson LA (Editors) Metal -binding in Medicine, JB Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, 1960

Szekely P and Wynne NA: Effects of calcium chelation on digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Brit Heart J 25:589, 1963.



EDTA, atherosclerosis

Birk RE and Rupe CE: The treatment of systemic sclerosis with disodium EDTA, pyridoxine and reserpine. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull 14:109, 1966

Blankenhorn DH: Calcium deposits in the plaque. In: Evolution of the Plaque. (Ed.RJ Jones) Univ Chi Press Chicago pp297.

Boyle AJ, Jasper JJ, McCormick H, et al: Studies in human and induced atherosclerosis employing - (EDTA). Bull Swiss Acad Med Sci 13:408, 1957

Boyle AJ, Clarke NE, Mosher RE, McCann DS: Chelation therapy in circulatory and scleros­ing diseases. Fed Proc 20(3) (Part II) (suppl 10):243-257, 1961.

Brucknerova O, Tulacek J and Krojzl O: Chelates in the treatment of obliterating arteriopathies. Vnitrni Lek 14:841, 1968.

Brucknerova O and Malinovska V: First clinical experience with combined treatment with chelation III and glucagon in ischemic disease of the lower extremities, Cas Lek Cas 119:814,1980.

Brucknerova O, Tulacek J: Chelates in the treatment of occlusive atherosclerosis. (Czech, Praha) Vnitr Lek 18:729, 1972.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy, efficacy in arteriosclerotic heart disease. J Holistic Medicine 3(1):53, 1981.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy II, efficacy in brain disorders. J Holistic Medicine 3(2):101, 1981.

Casdorph HR, Farr CH: EDTA chelation therapy Ill: Treatment of peripheral arterial occlu­sion, an alternative to amputation. J Holistic Medicine 3(1):3, 1983.

Chappell LT and Stahl JP: The correlation between EDTA chelation therapy and improvement in cardiovascular function: a meta-analysis. J Adv Med 6(3):139, 1993.

Chappell LT, Stahl JP and Evans R: EDTA chelation treatment for vascular disease: a meta-analysis using unpublished data. J Adv Med 7(3):131, 1994.

Cappell LT, Janson M, Whitaker J: A challenge to cardiovascular surgeons. J Adv Med 9(3): 153, 199

Chappell LT and Margolis S: Point-Counterpoint on EDTA chelation therapy. Alternative Therapies 1(2):53, 1994

Chappell LT: EDTA chelation therapy should be more commonly used in the treatment of vascular disease. Alternative Therapies Health Med 1:53, 1995.

Chappell LT, Miranda R, Rubin M, Carter JP and Trowbridge J: Chelation therapy (Letter). Circulation 92:1350, 1995.

Clarke NE Sr, Clarke NE Jr, Mosher RE: Treatment of occlusive vascular disease with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Amer J Med Sci 732:110, 1960.

Clarke NE, Clarke CN, and Mosher RE: Treatment of angina pectoris with disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid. Am J of Med Sci 232:654, 1956.

Clarke NE Sr: Atherosclerosis, occlusive vascular disease and EDTA. Am J Cardiol 6(2):233, 1960.

Clarke NE, Clarke CN, Mosher RE: The "in vivo" dissolution of metastatic calcium: An approach to atherosclerosis. Am J Med Sci 229:142,1955.

Cranton EM and Frackelton JP: The current status of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of occlusive arterial disease. Journal of Holistic Medicine 4: 24, 1982.

Cranton EM: The current status of EDTA chelation therapy, editorial. J Holistic Med 7(1):3, 1985.

Craven, PC and Morelli HF: Chelation therapy. West J Med, 122:277, 1975.

Donald GF, Hunter GA, Roman W and Taylor AEJ: Current concepts of cutaneous porphyria and its treatment with particular reference to the use of sodium calcium-edetate. Brit J Derm 82:70, 1970.

EDTA chelation therapy for arteriosclerotic heart disease. Medical Letter 23,1981.

EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Medical Letter 36:48 l994.

Friedel W, Schulz FH Schroder L: Therapy of atherosclerosis through mucopolysaccarides and EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid). (German) Deutsch Gesundh 20:1566, 1965.

Gibson T: Letter to the editor-The benefits of EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerosis. Med J Australia 143(3):127, 1985.

Godfrey ME: EDTA chelation as a treatment of arteriosclerosis .N Z Med J 93:199, 1990.

Godfrey ME, Frackleton JP and Chappell LT: Chelation therapy for intermittent claudication (Letter). Z Med J 107:495, 1994

Godfrey ME, Agnihotri R and Strauss A: Chelation and arteriosclerosis. N Z Med J 101(838):21, 1988.

Gordon GB, Vance RB: EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerosis: History and mechanisms of action. Osteopathic Annals 4:38, 1976.

Gould RG: Metals and chelating agents in relation to atherosclerosis. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):252, 1961

Grumbles LA: Radionuclide studies of cerebral and cardiac arteriography before and after chelation therapy. New Horizons in Holistic Health II (Symposium). Chicago, May 27, 1979.

Guldager B, Jelnes R, Jorgenson SJ, et al: EDTA treatment of intermittent claudication - a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Intern Med 231:261, 1992.

Hancke C and Flytlie K: Benefits of EDTA chelation therapy in arteriosclerosis: a retrospective study of 470 patients. J Adv Med 6(3):161,1993.

Julian JJ: Pass or Bypass? Chelation Extends Life. Hollywood, Wellness Press, 1981.

Kitchell JR and Meltzer LE: The potential uses of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Prog of Cardiovascular Dis 3:338, 1961.

Kitchell JR, Palmon F, Aytan N, Meltzer LE: The treatment of coronary artery disease with disodium EDTA, a reappraisal. Am J Cardiol 11:501, 1963.

Lamar CP: Chelation therapy of occlusive arteriosclerosis in diabetic patients. Angiology 15:379, 1964.

Lamar CP: Chelation endarterectomy for occlusive atherosclerosis. J Am Geri Soc 14(3):272, 1966.

Lamar CP: Calcium chelation of atherosclerosis, nine years' clinical experience. Read before the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the American College of Angiology, San Juan, PR, Dec 8, 1968. (Transcript available from ACAM, 23121 Verdugo Dr., Suite 204, Laguna Hills, CA 92653.)

Lamb DJ and Leake DS: The effect of EDTA on the oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 197894:35, 1992.

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